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Mr Salomon owned 20,000 £1 shares, and his wife and five children owned one share each.Some years later the company went into liquidation, and Mr Salomon claimed to be entitled to be paid first as a secured debenture holder.The ‘corporate veil’ surrounds the company of Murphy & Co Ltd and prevents outsiders challenging the operation of the company.However, although the principle of separation is central to company law, there are a number of situations when the company and its members can be identified together and treated as the same.Separate personality means that the artificial legal person, the company, can do almost everything a human person can do; it can make contracts, employ people, borrow and pay money, sue and be sued, among other things.The ‘veil of incorporation’ is the rather poetic term given to this separation of the company from its shareholders or members.

The court held that the income-tax authorities were entitled to pierce the veil of corporate entity and to look at the reality of the transaction to examine whether the corporate entity was being used for tax evasion.In this case, a separate corporate entity was brought into existence outside the taxable territory with the ulterior motive of evading the tax obligation by the assessee mills.The Supreme Court observed: "It is true that from the juristic point of view, the company is a legal personality entirely distinct from its members and the company is capable of enjoying rights and being subjected to duties which are not the same as those enjoyed or borne by its members.These are the exceptions to the rule in Salomon’s Case, when the corporate veil is lifted and the reality of the situation is examined.It was held that As soon as citizens form a company, the rights guaranteed to them by article 19(1)c has been exercised and no restraint has been placed on the right and no infringement of that right is made.

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